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Looking to Try Marijuana for Mental Health? You’re Not Alone.

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As the California Department of Food and Agriculture takes strides for the third public comment on the proposed modification for appellations regarding cannabis, we are witnessing a growing acceptance towards Marijuana for mental health. 

At the same time, several decriminalization efforts are also being endorsed by the likes of Senator Cory Booker. All these instances point towards a cleaner and legally unobtrusive future for medical Marijuana and CBD enthusiasts who have shown a significant surge in demand for the same. 

In a study conducted by Veriheal, it was discovered that an increasingly large number of people were looking for Marijuana practitioners for dealing with the implicit psychological effects of Covid-19. California is fast advancing towards a lockdown-free state with several appropriative actions being taken, but residual effects of the pandemic will wither on their own time. 

Why Marijuana for Mental Health?

Marijuana and its extracts such as THC, CBD, etc, show evidence of being therapeutic towards chronic pain and alleviating mental health issues. CBD, a non-psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant is particularly witnessing wide popularity for many of its mental health benefits.  

Should you consider CBD for better Mental Health?

The short answer is yes. CBD products such as CBD Tincture, CBD Gummies, and CBD-infused coffee, etc, are all instrumental in controlling chronic ailments. If you’re someone who finds it hard to deal with anxious thoughts or is constantly bogged down by the negative news on TV to a point where it is becoming mentally taxing, CBD might offer some respite for you.

CBD is a natural stress buster but it’s important to understand how exactly it works. Unlike a stress pill, that chemically calms you down, CBD reacts with your body’s stress signals. It induces a deep feeling of relaxation that is hard to naturally evoke if you’re not trained to control your anxiety.

It lets you feel at peace, calming you in a more natural way. While it comes from Marijuana, which is often psychoactive, CBD doesn’t induce a so-called “high.” You don’t escape into a trance or elevated state of consciousness, you just feel relaxed and composed.

Identifying Good CBD in California

The CBD products market is seriously littered with companies who can’t substantiate their claims, and are not worth your attention. But in order to cull the real good players from the barrage of CBD misinformants, you’d need to learn 4 basic rules of CBD purchasing.

It doesn’t matter what company you trust when it comes to buying CBD as it’s a naturally occurring substance, however, you should keep the following 4 rules in mind. 

  • Type of Product – CBD is offered in various forms and shapes. You can purchase a pack of CBD gummies or get some CBD vape oil, both of which pretty much do the same thing. The difference lies in understanding what your end goal is with the product. If you’re making a lifestyle choice, and wish to keep things casual, CBD products that come infused with FMCG items can be looked into. But if you plan on making lasing amends to chronic symptoms, you might need a doctor’s advice on how to use CBD. 
  • Potency – Potency refers to the milligram strength of CBD present in a particular CBD product. Most manufacturers offer varying potencies in their products in order to help customers figure the best option. It’s that you look for a potency label on the packaging and ensure you’re not going for a super-high potency in the beginning. Anything less than 1000mg is a good start. Increase it gradually as you roll.
  • COA – COA is a certificate that helps customers validate the authenticity of the product. Manufacturers that have a COA are usually trustworthy. These certificates are provided by 3rd party testing laboratories because CBD products are not regulated by FDA, and therefore you need something to place your bets on.  
  • Your Pre-existing Conditions – While most CBD products are not harmful in nature, you might end up with side effects. This is because CBD has a tendency to interfere with other drugs. If you’re on medication for an illness already, it’s better to consult a doctor first. 

If you’re of the right legal age, you can buy CBD-infused products in California that will help you deal with pandemic blues. One study found that there was a 46% year-over-year increase in patients wanting “to feel happy.” So, does CBD or Marijuana make you feel happy? Not exactly but it can help curb anxiety, chills, sleeping disorders, and potentially depression, all of which curtail one’s ability to be truly happy.





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Is ‘Cannabis Odor’ Still Probable Cause for Searching Your Vehicle?

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If you’ve been smoking weed for a long time, it’s highly likely you have found yourself in a scenario where you are getting searched by a police officer for one reason or another. One of the most daunting experiences for any stoner is getting pulled over with weed in the car; because as we know all too well, all a cop needs to do is simply claim that they “smell marijuana” in your vehicle and next thing you know you’re standing on the side of the road while they call for backup and tear your car apart looking for anything illegal they can find.

Is it fair? Of course not! But the more important question here is whether this age-old search tactic is legal or not, and if it will hold up in the court of law. The answer: it’s complicated and depends on where you are, who you ask, and the specifics of your situation. Police officers have relied on odor as probable cause for decades, and it was justified when cannabis was illegal across the board. But if you now live in a state where cannabis has been legalized, especially for recreational use, marijuana odor is no longer an ironclad reason to search without a warrant, because possessing it is not a crime in those states.

Cannabis laws in the USA can certainly be complicated, especially when it comes to knowing your own rights and how to protect yourself from unreasonable actions by law enforcement. We hope this article provides the insight you were looking for. To read more stories like this one, and for exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products, remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


The 4th Amendment and Probable Cause

Citing the Constitution of the United States of America, the fourth amendment is as follows: “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”

It’s generally accepted that a warrantless search of someone’s home is unjust, but the extent to which a person’s vehicle is protected under this statute remains up for debate. Despite pretty clear-cut verbiage in the fourth amendment, there exists a clause known as the “automobile exemption”. The automobile exemption was first established in the 1925 supreme court case, Carroll vs The United States.

Simply put, the automobile exception states that, because automobiles can move quickly from one location to another – carrying contraband and evading law enforcement – it would be unrealistic to require officers to get a warrant before searching the car. In a state where cannabis is illegal, the smell of cannabis is enough to lead officers to reasonably believe that a crime is being committed.

One might assume that this exception means that police officers have unlimited access to search the cars of all citizens as they see fit, but that is NOT the case. There are stipulations and it’s important to know your rights whenever you’re on the road. “The automobile exception is not a categorical one that permits the warrantless search of a vehicle anytime, anywhere, including in a home or curtilage,” says Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor.

So again, there is a lot of ambiguity there because the conditions determining whether the automobile exception can be used vary dramatically from state to state, county to county, and even city to city. Then it comes down to if the person pulled over is even committing a crime, which depends on they much you have, whether they have a medical card or not, if something was left in plain sight, or if the officer was given permission to search the car, or if another crime was being committed.

States can always implement higher standards than what is required by the fourth amendment, to further protect residents from unlawful searches and seizures, but they cannot allow conducts that violate the constitution in any way. If one believes their fourth amendment rights have been violated, a bivens action can be filed against federal law enforcement officials.

Recent Ruling in Illinois

What sparked my renewed interest in this topic is a news report I read from the Chicago Sun Times, in which authorities pulled over a vehicle and conducted a warrantless search that led to the arrest of the vehicle’s passenger for cannabis possession.

According to the court order, an Illinois State Trooper pulled over a grey Chevy Impala on Interstate 88 in rural Whiteside County on December 3, 2020. During the process of requesting identification, the trooper stated that he smelled “raw cannabis”, at which point the passenger, defendant Vincent Molina, provided his state-issued medical cannabis card.

Notwithstanding, the police officer proceeded to search the vehicle. He found 2.6 grams of weed and Molina was arrested for misdemeanor possession. For obvious reasons this arrest is utter nonsense, starting with the fact that recreational cannabis was legalized in Illinois on January 1, 2020, almost a full year before Molina’s arrest. Additionally, Molina was not just a recreational user but a medical patient.

Molina’s defense lawyers, James Mertes and Nichalas Rude, filed a motion to suppress the evidence, saying “the cannabis odor could not be used as a basis for police to search vehicles after the recent legalization of cannabis.”

Associate Judge of the 14th Judicial Circuit, Daniel J. Dalton, agrees with his attorneys, and ruled that Molina, “…did not indicate any other reason for his suspicions or his search other than the smell of raw cannabis,” and that, “Molina did provide a medical use license to (the trooper) prior to the search of the vehicle and there are a number of wholly innocent reasons a person or the vehicle in which they are in may smell of raw cannabis.”

All in all, it’s a pivotal case for The Prairie State which helps determine what is considered probable cause and sets new standards for how officers will conduct future searches and seizures. “I am honored to have been part of such an important decision. This case was much more important than me,” Molina said. “It was about our right to be free from unreasonable searches for legal conduct. I am just grateful to have been a part of protecting that right.”

No Confusion in New York

New York is one of the few states that actually wrote into their legalization law, which passed in March 2021, that cannabis odor is can no longer be used by law enforcement as a sole legitimate reason to conduct a vehicle search.

Under the updated policy, the only time officers are permitted to search a vehicle (as it pertains to cannabis), is if they believe the driver is under the influence of weed, or if they physically see the driver smoking or vaping while operating a vehicle, or while sitting inside of a parked vehicle.

Additionally, “the trunk may not be searched unless the officer develops separate probable cause to believe the trunk contains evidence of a crime.” So, if you want to be extra careful in NY, make sure to keep your stash in the trunk.

“I don’t think any other state was as clear-cut in removing marijuana very clearly from the universe of things that law enforcement can use, and certainly the odor of marijuana, as a reason to search a vehicle,” said Melissa Moore, New York state director for the Drug Policy Alliance.

Cases in Other States

In the other 18 states that have legalized cannabis, as well as Washington D.C., cases where cannabis odor was used as probable cause are still clogging up the court systems. Luckily for us, most of the court ruling have been in favor of the defendants.

For example, in Maryland, only medical cannabis is fully legal but possession of 10 grams or less for recreational use has been decriminalized since 2015. For reference, decriminalization means that even though cannabis is still not completely legal, it’s now a civil matter, rather than a criminal one, if you get caught with it. In April, an appellate court determined that “odor of marijuana by itself does not provide reasonable suspicion of criminal activity”.

In Colorado and California, the Supreme Courts throw out cases like this all the time, claiming there is no justification for searches or drug sniffing dogs to look solely for cannabis, now that it is legal in both of those states and possessing it is no different than having unopened containers of alcohol in your car.

In Michigan, another legal, adult-use state, the high court explicitly stated that “evidence of illegal guns and drugs should not be suppressed,” and that cannabis odor was “sufficient to justify a warrantless search.” Same goes for Florida, where only medical cannabis is legal but discussions of a recreational market are looming.

Rooted in Racism

As with many of our current drug laws, it’s safe to assume that there are some racist undertones to the way vehicle searches are often conducted. Statistics do exist to cement this theory, for instance, black residents make up 50 percent of the population of Newark, New Jersey, but were involved in roughly 80 percent of police department vehicle searches. Overall, policies that hinder automobile searches are supported by the nation’s most prominent civil rights activists.

“Police believe that if they stop more Black people, they’re going to pick up more drugs, because that’s what they’ve been taught,” said Meghan Matt, who works for a criminal defense and civil rights litigation attorney in Baton Rouge. “But it is statistically evident that Black and White people use marijuana at the same rate.”

Data from as far back as 1999 states that African American and Hispanic motorists are pulled over at rates much higher than whites, yet those searches are “equally or less likely to yield contraband.”

Kelsey Shoub, an assistant professor of political science at the University of South Carolina explored this theory further in her 2018 book, Suspect Citizens: What 20 Million Traffic Stops Tell Us About Policing and Race; which examined 14 years-worth of traffic stop data from North Carolina (not an error, research was not conducted in the same state as the University).

Shoub’s data was very telling and left little wiggle room to assume anything other than a systemic, racially-charged issue that seriously needs overhauling. Overall, black Americans where 63 percent more likely to be stopped on the road, even though they drive 16 percent less than whites. Taking into consideration that difference of time spent on the road, blacks where about 95 percent more likely to be stopped.

Furthermore, black Americans were 115 percent more likely to be searched during traffic stops than white Americans (5.05 percent for blacks and 2.35 percent for whites), BUT, contraband was found more often in the vehicles of white drivers.

“For me, there are a few big takeaways from the data, and the first two are probably not surprising,” says Shoub. “The first is that ‘driving while black’ is very much a thing; it’s everywhere and it’s not just a North Carolina or a Southern problem but across the United States,” Shoub says. “The second thing is that it appears to be more systemic than a few ‘bad apple’ officers engaged in racial profiling.”

Thoughts from Law Enforcement

“It’s an extraordinarily gray area,” said Mark Reene, prosecuting attorney for Tuscola County, Mich. “These are going to be decided very much on a case-by-case basis, and they’re going to be very fact-dependent. And what’s ultimately going to happen is this matter will end up in front of the United States Supreme Court.”

Because there is so little clarity on this subject, officers are increasingly reluctant to conduct vehicle searches, which means that potentially dangerous contraband is going unnoticed at a much higher rate. Making matter worse for law enforcement is the variation in laws, like different restrictions in different counties or only being able to search certain areas of the car – which makes it all the more confusing when an officer is working in the moment.

“It’s going to, without a doubt, lead to less searches of vehicles, which would then lead to less guns being recovered and significant drugs being recovered,” said Mary Tanner-Richter, vehicular crimes bureau chief in the Albany County district attorney’s office in New York. “I mean, I think it’s hard to argue against that being the reality we’re going to face.”

Tanner-Richter also mentioned that during her 16 years working for the state’s traffic safety division, she has seen a large portion of firearms and hard drugs confiscated during what started as routine traffic stops. Until now, her office encouraged police to utilize this search protocol whenever possible.

“That’s how they found Ted Bundy. That’s how the Oklahoma City bomber got caught. And quite often, that’s how they’re getting guns and drugs off the street,” she added. “They [police] are now losing a huge tool in their investigation of drugs and guns.”

Conclusion

Again, there is no clear-cut answer on whether cannabis odor can be used as probable cause to conduct a warrantless search of a vehicle. It all depends on where you are, what products you have and how much, who pulls you over, and so forth. It does seem as though the odor excuse is carrying less weight as legalization sweeps through the nation.

Hello all! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your ultimate online destination for the most relevant and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Read-thru the site regularly to stay on top of the constantly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a thing.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.





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The Child-Proof Edibles Packaging Issue… And What About Alcohol??

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Edibles like gummies have brought up a whole new topic in the world of weed: the importance of child-proof edibles packaging. When taking a look at the debate going on, it becomes clear that the biggest problem is not the legal market, but the competing black market. And when getting down to realities, the question arises of why the same stringent standards aren’t applied to alcohol.

You know your edibles are most likely real when they come in child-proof edibles packaging that’s hard to open. And this is good because it keeps kids from being exposed to high levels of THC and other synthetic chemicals. For those who prefer to vape, so their kids won’t notice edibles, you can choose from a range of cannabis compounds besides regular delta-9. Like delta-8 THC, THCV, CBN, and even hemp-derived delta-9. For more articles like this one, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Cannabis edibles

Up until the last few years, the world of cannabis edibles consisted of cooking up some brownies or chocolate chip cookies in your own kitchen. Some standard dealers would offer products like this, sometimes as one-offs, but it wasn’t the standard mode of anything. Edibles were a fun ‘other’ way to do the weed thing, but there wasn’t a massive culture of it on the black market, and they weren’t a main player in the cannabis game.

This all changed with the application of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is a part of the technology world that deals with the manipulation of particles which have sizes less than 100 nanometers. 100 nanometers is about 1000th the thickness of a piece of paper to give an idea of the sizes we’re speaking of. The same general topic in the world of physics, is nanoscience, and the two studies are closely linked together.

Part of nanotechnology, is the ability for emulsions, which is the forcing together of two opposing liquids. Emulsions done on bigger particles are called macroemulsions or microemulsions depending on the specific size. However, when the particle sizes drop to 20-200 nm, it becomes known as a nanoemulsion. Emulsions for larger particles are already used widely in the food industry, and chemicals industry, whereas nanoemulsions are already seen being used by pharmaceutical companies, the cosmetics industry, and in biotech.

emulsions

The beauty of emulsions is that they can force together oil-based and water-based molecules. In the world of weed, this means the ability to take oil-based cannabinoids like delta-9 THC, and force them together with water-based compounds. So whereas we used to be limited to foods that use oils, like butter (cookies, brownies, cakes…), we can now infuse anything with cannabinoids like THC and CBD, into products like soda, potato chips, and candy. As such a new and growing industry of cannabis edibles has arisen, eating cannabis – particularly as gummies, has become one of the primary ways of ingesting the plant.

How popular are edibles?

In terms of what that means in numbers, though there aren’t amazing statistics out there just yet, there are a few metrics we can go by. One of the better measurements to be released comes from the company Headset, a Seattle-based cannabis analytics company, which put out end-of-year data for 2020. According to the company, edibles made up 11.07% of the cannabis market in 2020 across the states: California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. That percentage is up 10.65% from the previous year.

Does this account for the entire edibles market, even in the mentioned states? No, it doesn’t. One of the biggest issues is the fakes markets, which encompass fake products like vapes and edibles, as well as the very dispensaries they’re sold out of.

As legal markets have uniformly been unable to take down black markets, and as black markets morph to look more like legal ones, (with all the same products therein), actual trends of the cannabis industry must therefore include them, or only a fragment of the behavior we’re looking into, is being spoken about. I can’t wager a guess as to how adding in the black market effects this percentage, but from my experiences in illegal dispensaries, they gear a huge amount of business towards edibles, and my guess is that the percentage would remain the same (if not go up).

The need for child-proof edibles packaging

Weed has been around for quite some time. And so have little children. Up until recently, there wasn’t an issue of children accidentally consuming said marijuana, at least not on any kind of large scale that would necessitate reporting. Probably because a dried-up plant that smells funny isn’t all that interesting to a kid. You know what is interesting to a kid? Candy! Kids sure love candy!

The problem this creates is that as edibles becomes more widespread, it means logically they end up in more places, with more people having access to them. A bag of super nice nugs lying on a couch will likely be bypassed by a toddler. But a bag of brightly colored gummy worm candies? A lot less likely. Even if the kid messes with the flowers, that’ll most likely entail getting your couch dirty and ruining your stash. If the kid messes with the bag of cannabis gummy worms, they could end up ingesting huge amounts of THC, and in the case of fake edibles, synthetics and other untold chemicals.

Black Friday ‘Legal THC’ Deals: $1 Delta-9 THC Gummies

While the idea of simply changing how they look, and the packaging, could (possibly) assuage this problem, simply by not connecting the idea of these gummies to anything a child would consider candy-related, (including using the designs of known brands), this does not seem to be an idea on the table for illegal companies. Legal companies, however, comply with regulation, and actually do provide child-proof edibles packaging that doesn’t advertise the product in pictures.

Real vs fake

Every time I’ve bought edibles from a real dispensary, I’ve had to break through the child-proof measures of the edibles packaging. The outer plastic has no slit on the side to tear from, the plastic can’t be easily pulled apart like you might do to open a standard bag of popcorn, and it even took a little extra force for me to puncture it with a knife. Inside the plastic was a separate container, which obviously blocks view of the product, and with no pictures on the packaging. The containers themselves are tightly packaged in a separate layer of plastic, and it took me a couple minutes to get the thick coverings off, as they were practically sealed to the containers. I have never had a quicker or easier experience than this.

Though there might be issues with some legal companies dropping the ball with packaging, from my experience, this problem really relates to the black market where there are no regulations in place for how things should be packaged, and no desire by the companies to care about it in order to preserve a brand name. Major candy companies have waged law suits against these cannabis companies, mainly on intellectual property rights. Of course, a legal cannabis brand would never mimic a known brand, so whoever is being sued, isn’t from the legal world of weed to begin with.

If you’re thinking ‘hey, I just saw gummies online in colorful, easy-to-open, familiar looking packaging’, just remember, no regulated company will be involved in selling THC products outside of legal dispensaries. If the product is offering more than legal limits of THC, then you know for sure its fake. And if the branding on the product looks like a known brand – but slightly off, its a slam dunk fake. These products might be just fine, but as illegal companies masquerading as legal ones, there’s no way of knowing what actually ends up in the products, or how easy it will be to get through the packaging.

Wait a second…what about alcohol?

It indeed makes sense to be careful with a cannabis food that looks like a child’s favorite thing to eat. But it does highlight a strange inconsistency where cannabis is treated as more dangerous than alcohol. This was well exemplified at the 2021 MJBizCon cannabis event held in Las Vegas, Nevada in October. According to state law in Nevada, though cannabis is legal for personal use, and there is a regulated market, cannabis cannot be used in public places, and though a social smoking law is supposed to be enacted in Vegas, it wasn’t relevant at the time. According to law, it would have been illegal to give out samples, or allow people to get high there.

But at the very same time, there was alcohol being sold right next to these booths which the convention was centered around, and which couldn’t provide samples of their own THC-containing products. As in, there isn’t a law that you can’t give samples of alcohol, or sell it to consumers, or allow consumers to mingle while using it, but there is for weed.

kids and alcohol

Now, let’s be honest about something else, you know what else kids love besides candy? Soda! And what does soda come in? Cans and bottles with the exact same twist off caps and pull-up tabs that beer cans use, in the exact same style bottles and cans that beer companies use, often with bright colors and cool pictures, just like beer.

I have personally been able to operationally open both twist off caps and pull-up tabs since I was about five years old. So, the idea that alcohol is not being held to these same stringent standards is silly at best. Especially considering that drinks are drank over time, and left out in places during this process, often forgotten about in drunkenness, and frequently mixed with sweet smelling ingredients that would attract any child. Now remember that whereas cannabis is not associated with death rates (although a small child consuming massive amounts of THC is questionable), alcohol comes with a huge one, being one of the leading risk factors for overall disability and death in many age categories!

Conclusion

Child-proof packaging for cannabis products is most certainly important, but the bigger issues seems to be the unregulated products on the black market. Kids are way less likely to be attracted to gummies sold by regulation which aren’t visible or being advertised to them, then a package that looks like their favorite candy. As legal companies will go by regulation, this is a black market issue.

What is more than a black market issue though, is the unfair treatment of weed compared to alcohol. Yeah, child-proof edibles packaging is good and should be used, but maybe then we should be more cognizant of how readily and easily available we make alcohol to children.

Hello..! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your one-stop shop on the web for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, providing thought-provoking and current stories from all over the world. Read-thru the site regularly to stay aware of the quickly-moving landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re sure to get every news story first.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.





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The Third Cannabis Receptor Site – GPR55

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We talk all the time about the two cannabis receptor sites in the body, CB1 and CB2. Scientists, however, have uncovered what appears to be a third cannabis receptor site, GPR55. What is this site? And how does it impact things like inflammation, cancer, and anxiety?

CB1 and CB2 might be the main cannabis receptors, but a third cannabis receptor site exists called GPR55. Perhaps in the future, this receptor site will play a bigger role in the research and development of cannabis products. For now, there are plenty up for grabs, including a growing array of cannabis cannabinoids including delta-8 THC, THCV, and even hemp-derived delta-9. No matter what your favorite delivery method, we’ve got a product for you. Check out our deals, and start your holiday shopping today!


CB1 and CB2

To start with, humans (and other animals) have an endocannabinoid system which is a neuromodulation network throughout the body. This system is highly important to central nervous system functioning, as well as being involved in synaptic plasticity, and the response to different stimuli, whether from inside or outside the body. The system involves cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids (or endogenous cannabinoids made in the body), and the enzymes that are required for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids.

There is currently plenty of research going on involving the endocannabinoid system, and how it functions. Research findings have pointed at the endocannabinoid system being related to the regulation of cognitive as well as physiological processes, like fertility, pregnancy, and natal and early development.

It is also thought to play into immune activities; mood, emotion, and motivation; memory and learning; appetite; pain sensitivity and modulation; behaviors involving addiction; and neural functions like motor coordination and control. And of course we can’t forget its also responsible for producing the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids like delta-9 THC.

GPR55

When it comes to the receptors, there are several, however the two of main interest, and which have been studied the most, are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 was first cloned in 1990, and those receptors are found mainly in the brain and nervous system throughout the body, including in other organs and tissue.

CB2 receptors are found in the brain (though far less than CB1 receptors), and in the immune system and gastrointestinal system. CB1 receptors therefore are regulators of neural transmissions and many peripheral purposes, and CB2 receptors are more geared toward regulating immune and inflammation pathways.

In terms of THC, “THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). A very high binding affinity of THC with the CB1 receptor appears to mediate its psychoactive properties (changes in mood or consciousness), memory processing, motor control, etc. It has been reported that a number of side effects of THC, including anxiety, impaired memory and immunosuppression, can be reversed by other constituents of the cannabis plant (cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids).”

Third cannabis receptor site – GPR55

CB1 and CB2 receptors are only two types of receptors found in the endocannabinoid system, but others exist. One atypical type of receptor, often thought of as the third cannabis receptor site, is GPR55. This receptor, first found in 1999, is still being studied, and not a whole lot is known about it for sure. However, it’s expected that it’s responsible for many of the effects of different cannabinoids, leading some to refer to it as cannabinoid receptor site 3. In actuality, it has not yet been given an official CB3 designation, but that could be coming.

GPR55 (or, G protein-coupled receptor 55) is thought of as a ‘type 3’ receptor, which is activated by cannabinoids like delta-9, as well as non-cannabinoid ligands. A ligand is a grouping of like molecules that can attach to receptor sites, and in this case refers to either endocannabinoids (made within the body), phytocannabinoids (produced by the plant), synthetic cannabinoids (made in a lab), and non-cannabinoids. So this means the receptor is activated by cannabis related compounds, and non-cannabis compounds as well.

GPR55 receptor actions have been seen in the nervous system; parts of the brain like the frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hypothalamus, and brain stem; and in dorsal root ganglia neurons; the spleen; tonsils; adrenals; bones; endothelial cells; large intestine; lungs; kidneys; and adipose tissue (or body fat).

CB1 CB2

In the brain, these receptors seem to be related to the perception of pain, neuroprotection, anxiety issues, motor coordination, and substance abuse issues. Apart from these attributes, GPR55 is also thought to be involved in the formation of bone, the experience of neuropathic pain, inflammation, and fetoplacental development.

What third cannabis receptor site GPR55 shows in research

So, what is this third cannabis receptor site GPR55 known for? Well, its still being researched, but there are several different attributes it’s being studied for. One of them has to do with how these receptors effect cancer. These receptors are associated with many different kinds of cancer, and can be found within cancer cells.

One of the things about GPR55, is that it seems (at least at times) to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. In general, something that helps cancer spread is not thought of as good. In one study it was found that the knocking down of the GPR55 expression in glioma cells (essentially using glioma cells where GPR55 expression has been muted) was related to decreased tumor growth. As in, when the receptors weren’t functioning, tumors didn’t function as well either. Another study showed the expression of GPR55 in different prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines.

Learning how GPR55 effects cancer cells, is useful for understanding how cancers grow, and how to treat them. For example, recently developed antibodies that work against GPR55, can detect it’s expression at protein levels in tumor tissue and normal tissue. At CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids act as agonists, and have been shown to be useful for fighting cancer because of antiproliferative, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects. Agonists of GPR55 are known for their pro-cancer effects.

THC has been shown to be an agonist sometimes with GPR55, but not always, leading to reasonable confusion as to how the receptors are effected by delta-9, and whether the effect created is positive or negative.

One of the big avenues of research for this third cannabis receptor GPR55, is regarding its anti-inflammatory properties. For example, in one study, the increased expression of GPR55 suggested a relationship with intestinal inflammation. In fact, GPR55 seems to play a pro-inflammatory role according to some research. Other research shows the opposite, like it having an anti-inflammatory expression on mast cells, by way of inhibiting mast cell-mediated releases of nerve growth factor. Investigating different agonists and antagonists of GPR55 can help us better understand how it’s used for inflammatory and anti-inflammatory purposes. Both are necessary for bodily function.

The takeaway? “The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia.” Of course, specifics to all this are still quite unknown.

cannabis receptors

Yet another attribute has to do with its use with anxiety, which is also still not well understood. In one study on mice with the GPR55 receptors silenced in the medial orbital cortex (knockout mice), it was found that use of O-1602 (synthetic compound somewhat related to abnormal CBD), which had previously shown to work as an anxiolytic in acutely stressed mice, no longer had this effect without use of the receptor. This indicates that the receptor might play an important role in experiencing anxiety, with its suppression effecting how anxiolytic compounds will behave.

GPR55’s existence in the central and peripheral nociceptive systems (the systems whereby we sense and experience pain), implies a possible ability to modulate these pathways. It has even been proposed that GPR55 (as well as receptor GPR18) could play a part in the experience of both acute and chronic pain. Research already suggests that GPR55 is related to the modulation of nociceptor excitability, meaning it can play a role in how we respond to painful stimuli. In terms of nerve damage, GPR55 was found to show mRNA expression in both the spinal cord and DRG (dorsal root ganglion) of nerve-damaged test rats, suggesting a link between GPR55 and neuropathic pain. Studies are across the board at the moment, with much further research needed.

Conclusion

Even though we talk about CB1 and CB2 receptors a lot, it doesn’t mean they’re the only ones at all, and in fact, other receptor sites have been found. Third cannabis receptor site GPR55 might not technically be called CB3 at the moment, but it might soon, and for good reason. It seems to play a big role in how cannabis is capable of effecting the body, though the jury is still out on exactly what this means in different contexts.

What is for sure is that cannabis is a plant with many and varied compounds capable of having many and varied effects. Perhaps GPR55 represents an avenue of cannabis we are still not as familiar with, and points us in an important direction for future cannabis study.

Welcome everyone! Thanks for stopping by CBDtesters.co, the best internet location for all cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up the most current and interesting stories of today. Come for a visit regularly to stay informed on the quickly-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and don’t forget to check out the The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, to get every important news story first.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.





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