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cannabis concentrates

A Whistle Stop Tour of the Cannabis Concentrates



The cannabis market has been booming over the last few years as more countries around the globe begin to accept the wonders of the plant. What once was an illegal, unacceptable drug, is now – slowly – becoming a legal medicine and even a legal recreational pastime. One of the more modern inventions inside the cannabis world is cannabis concentrates.

Whilst some have been around for centuries, others have been created more recently by the wonders of science. There are several different cannabis concentrates out there, so sometimes it’s hard to find the information you want. In this article, we’ll be taking you on a whistle stop tour of all of the main cannabis concentrates. And don’t worry – this tour is completely free of charge. Put your seatbelt on. Let’s begin.

Cannabis concentrates can be found on dispensary shelves, boasting names like shatter, butter, wax, resin, and more. Any specific cannabinoid can be concentrated, so regardless of whether you’re looking for delta-9 THC, delta-8 THCdelta 10THC-OTHCV, CBG, or something else, it can be found in concentrate form. This is great for delta-8 THC users, because it allows a concentrated form of this alternate form of THC which doesn’t cause anxiety like half-brother delta-9, and which leaves users with a clear head and energy, while having a similar medical profile. We’ve got great deals for delta-8 THC and many other compounds, so take a look, and try ’em out!

What are Cannabis Concentrates?

Once someone has total control over the marijuana plant, there are many ways to transform and eventually consume it. Cannabis can be placed in oils, edibles, the usual buds and even synthesised concentrates. It all depends on the creation process. But before we discuss how they’re made, let’s first truly understand what they are. And, as always, there’s never a better places to find complex definitions than wikipedia

“A cannabis concentrate (also called marijuana concentrate, marijuana extract, or cannabis extract) is a highly potent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) concentrated mass. Marijuana concentrates contain extraordinarily high THC levels that could once range from 40 to 80%, up to four times stronger in THC content than high grade or top shelf marijuana, which normally measures around 20%”

It’s in the name really, isn’t it? Cannabis concentrates are designed to be especially potent in comparison with cannabis buds or other products. By getting rid of any extra, unnecessary parts of the cannabis plant, cannabis concentrates are able to focus on what really matters: the terpenes and cannabinoids. It’s within these that the aromas and effects of cannabis are found – which is why people have spent years trying to find a way to harness them in the greatest possible way. That is why cannabis concentrates come in so many different shapes and sizes, and are made in a variety of ways. 

How are Cannabis Concentrates Made?

Cannabis concentrates is an umbrella term for many different substances; some are liquids, some are solids and some are a mix of both. There are two main ways of making cannabis concentrates and that is through solvent extraction, and solventless extraction. One uses chemicals, labs and science coats, whilst others are easier to make and more natural. Let’s figure out what these are. 

What is Solvent Extraction?

A solvent extraction is essentially when a chemical is used to separate the cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. By introducing certain chemicals, as well as heat and pressure, into the equation – this separation occurs. However, there isn’t just one way of completing this process. Some use carbon dioxide, whilst others use butane; these are two of the most common ways of using solvent extraction to create cannabis concentrates. 

Carbon Dioxide Extraction 

Carbon dioxide extraction is complex because, obviously, co2 is a gas, not a solid. However, the amazing result of a beautiful cannabis concentrate makes the process worth it. The carbon dioxide is first placed in a chamber where it is pressured and turned into a liquid through low temperatures. The co2 is then reheated, which due to the nature of carbon dioxide, makes it a supercritical substance. This substance is then passed through a chamber containing the cannabis plant. The supercritical substance will extract the trichomes, which contains the pure and potent compounds desirable to create cannabis concentrates. The substance that is left after this process can then be used to create a variety of cannabis concentrates. 

Butane Extraction

Butane extraction is most popular for creatine hash oil. But how does it work? As mentioned earlier, any solvent extraction to make cannabis concentrates uses some sort of other chemical – which in this case, is butane. The cannabis is first covered with butane, in its liquid form. Butane happens to be a very easily liquefiable gas. Once this is done, heat and pressure is used, and yet again, what is left is a cannabis concentrate. This can be used to create hash oil, budder, shatter or crumble. 

What is Non-Solvent Extraction?

Non-solvent extraction is a far less complicated process, and one that doesn’t leave you scratching your head quite as much. However, that’s not to say that the result is any less wonderful. Non-solvent extraction is made, as you can imagine, without chemicals in the creation process.

For example, kief and hash would both be cannabis concentrates that are made with non-solvent extraction. But, yet again, there are a variety of ways that non-solvent extraction can take place. Kief is made through rolling the dry cannabis plant over a sieve, and allowing the whitey yellow thrichomes to collect. Trichomes also look a bit like mini snowdrops up close. These are hugely potent and hold all of the best compounds of the plant. 

Another example of a non-solvent extraction would be in the creation of hash. Hash is one of the oldest types of cannabis concentrates. In fact, a scientist called Gmelin first mentioned the substance in 1777. The process of creating hash can vary depending on technique. However, one way of making hash is in water. The cannabis plant is tumbled in icy cold water and is then filtered through a mesh. This substance is then dried and pressed into small blocks. The resin, which is what the substance is made out of, is very high in THC.

Why are Cannabis Concentrates Popular?

Before we take a whistle stop tour through some of the main and post popular cannabis concentrates, let’s first ask the question: why are they so popular? Well, it’s first important to realise that any connoisseur of any substance will always search for the most pure version of it. Think of pressed olive oil, some people will spend their lives searching for the first press because it will be the highest quality oil.

This is the same with orange juice, the first press of orange juice is considered to be the purest, healthiest and tastiest. Cannabis concentrates are no different to this. People who love cannabis and the effects of it, are always discovering new ways to enjoy it in its purest and most powerful form. As mentioned earlier, the average cannabis concentrate can have THC levels of over 60%. This is why cannabis concentrates are becoming more and more popular. 

The Cannabis Concentrates



Kief is a collection of resin trichomes. Kief is one of the easiest cannabis concentrates to make. In fact, some three-part grinders have a section at the bottom that collects fallen down kief over time, which can then be placed in a joint and smoked. It is golden in colour, and powdery. 


Hash is usually sold in brown blocks. Some are dark and some are light brown. Usually, a good way to tell if hash is good quality is to see if it burns like a candle. If it does, then your hash is excellent. Usually hash will be heated before consumption, so that small parts can be separated from the large block. These small parts of hash are then placed in the joint. 


Charas comes primarily from India and Jamaica. It looks quite similar to hash but is usually darker and sold in balls, rather than blocks. The difference between hash and charas is that the latter is made from the entire cannabis plant, whereas the former is made from dried trichomes. 



Shatter is an example of cannabis concentrate that is made from butane extraction. The substance is golden in colour and looks like shattered glass. It also looks quite a lot like frozen honey. 


Wax is very similar to shatter, except it’s slightly more liquidy. Whilst the aroma and potency of wax is almost identical to shatter, it’s the consistency that differs. Wax is opaque and malleable. In addition, wax is dabbed into a joint in order to smoke it. 


The average crumble has THC levels of anywhere from 60-90%. Again, there are many similarities between crumble and the rest of the solvent cannabis concentrates, however the look and consistency is different. Crumble literally crumbles in one’s hands. Crumble is also dabbed in order to use it. 

The Tour Is Now Over

So there you have it, that was a quick and concise whistle stop tour of the cannabis concentrates. There are many other cannabis concentrates that people might mention, and all of them are very slightly different to the next. Like any enthusiasts, cannabis-lovers like to invent and name new cannabis concentrates constantly – even if they look and feel the same as before. Nevertheless, there’s no doubt that cannabis concentrates are a highly potent and quite amazing substance. 

But what’s your favourite cannabis concentrate? Drop us a line in the comment section below!

Thanks for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related! Remember to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal products.

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butane hash oil

Shatter, Wax, BHO, Resin, Rosin, and More



Smoking, dabbing, and vaping concentrates has become a main way of consuming cannabis. But what are these different concentrates on the market, like shatter, wax, butter, and resin, and how are they different from each other?

Cannabis concentrates can be found on dispensary shelves, boasting names like shatter, butter, wax, resin, and more. Any specific cannabinoid can be concentrated, so regardless of whether you’re looking for delta-9 THC, delta-8 THC, delta 10, THC-O, THCV, CBG, or something else, it can be found in concentrate form. This is great for delta-8 THC users, because it allows a concentrated form of this alternate form of THC which doesn’t cause anxiety like half-brother delta-9, and which leaves users with a clear head and energy, while having a similar medical profile. We’ve got great deals for delta-8 THC and many other compounds, so take a look, and try ’em out!

Extracts vs concentrates?

A concentrate is sort of what it sounds like, a concentrated form of something. Before getting further into it, though, it’s best to do some quick definitions in order to understand what we’re speaking of. The terms ‘concentrates’ and ‘extracts’ are used almost synonymously, and though sometimes this makes sense, sometimes it does not. So, for the sake of clarity, here are the two basic definitions.

Extract: This is anything that has been taken out of the cannabis plant. A cannabis flower is a flower, not an extract, but when the plant is put in alcohol to leach out the THC or CBD, those compounds that get taken out, are extracts of the plant.

Concentrate: This is an extract that has been put in concentrated form. So let’s say a plant naturally has about 20% THC. If you smoke the plant you’ll get that 20%. However, if you extract the THC out into a product that now doesn’t have the rest of the plant, the THC is concentrated to account for maybe as high as 90%+, making it a concentrate. You can kind of look at it like this, all concentrates are extracts, but not all extracts are concentrates.

concentrated cannabinoids

Taking a minor cannabinoid like CBN is a good example. You can do an extraction, like a tincture, where different compounds from the plant are leached out into the alcohol. If it’s just a regular extraction, the amount of CBN will be low, since it doesn’t exist in large quantities in the plant. If it’s <1% of the plant, the ratio of it to other compounds will remain the same in the tincture. However, if you’re looking specifically for a CBN product, you might want to find a concentrated form, where the CBN has been leached out, and then separated from the rest of the compounds, making for a concentrated version of just that cannabinoid.

Sometimes this means taking the CBN from several plants to put together as one concentrate. This is also why synthetization occurs frequently when making cannabis products. CBN doesn’t exist in large amounts, so if enough is wanted to produce a product, it often has to be synthesized in a laboratory to make enough for production. There is currently argument over whether something should be considered a synthetic under this condition.

Another good example is hemp oil vs CBD oil. Hemp oil is made as an extraction of the compounds in a hemp plant. CBD oil is a hemp extraction where the CBD has been concentrated to be above the amount found in the plant in nature.

How are extractions done?

Extractions can be done in different ways. The tincture method, mentioned above, is done with ethanol alcohol usually, although tinctures can also be made with vinegar, oil, glycerin, or even water. Alcohol does the best job of breaking down plant material to release compounds, so it’s often used most for this purpose.

For the kind of extracts we’re talking about in this article, they are usually extracted using a solvent like butane or carbon dioxide.  Usually butane, though. The plant material is put in the solvent, which breaks down the trichomes which house the cannabinoids inside. The cannabinoids bind directly to the solvent, and by the end of the process, the solvent is burned off with heat, leaving behind a concentrated extraction of cannabinoids. This is often done in a closed loop system:

A closed-loop system is a process that involves devices that can operate automatically to control a process in order to reach a specific result. In an open-loop system, human help is required, closed-loop does not have such a requirement. As per the name, the process involves a circular motion and ends in the same place it begins. For a closed-loop, the plant material starts in one place, goes to another where its soaked with a solvent like butane. Then to another chamber where compounds get released, and then to another chamber where the solvent is heated to burn it off. The remaining solvent filters back to the place it started, ending the loop.

cannabis extraction - concentrates

More and more, this is being done as a cold process in order to preserve cannabinoids and terpenes. When done as a cold extraction, the plant material and solvent are both cooled first – sometimes down to cryogenic temperatures in the case of something like live resin. The cooling becomes a part of the closed-loop cycle. In a closed-loop system, the solvent never makes contact with the outside, and this creates a generally safer situation when dealing with flammable solvents. Anytime a solvent like butane or propane is used, it’s a hydrocarbon extraction.

Main concentrates of interest: shatter, wax, BHO, butter, resin

There are a lot of different names these days to define concentrates. Concentrates have names like shatter, butane hash oil, butter, wax, resin, rosin… So what’s the difference? Sometimes not much at all. In fact, sometimes the difference has more to do with the consistency of the final product than anything else. Here’s a basic breakdown of some of the more popular concentrates currently on dispensary shelves:

Shatter: This concentrate actually looks a bit like glass, which makes the name understandable. It’s generally yellow in color with air bubbles throughout, and a slick, hard texture. It has the appearance that it would literally shatter if you banged it against a hard object. It’s stiffness and shininess are what defines it. Shatter gets its appearance because of the cooling process it goes through. It is purged, heated, and cooled on repeat for no less than 48 hours, which turns the otherwise sticky oil, into a glass-like structure. This can allow for very high THC levels of close to 99%, so the end product is nearly pure cannabinoid.

Wax and butter are the same thing, and can also go by the name batter. Much like the name again, the consistency is creamy-looking, like butter, with a thicker, wetter consistency than shatter. This is a result of actually being whipped, much like butter. The whipping process evaporates out solvents left over, while incorporating in air to give it its nice buttery texture. Depending on how intensely its whipped, the final product can be more dry and crumbly – resembling wax, or less intense which leaves it creamier like butter. Waxes and butters melt very quickly, and are great for dab tools.

Honeycomb is another kind of concentrate, generally made using hydrocarbons as solvents. The only real difference between how shatter and honeycomb are made, is in the purging phase (which is how most of these concentrates get their individual textures). Unlike shatter which is purged, heated, and cooled on repeat, or butter, which is whipped during purging, honeycomb is created by putting the concentrate on a pan in a vacuum, and purged only at low temperature for a long time, allowing it to dry out. This creates a concentrate that can look like a honeycomb, or simply just be dry and crumbly, making it different then concentrates that are wetter and stickier. This is also called crumble, because it can crumble in your hand due to its brittle nature.

Live resin: This one relies on not only using cold temperatures, but using cryogenic temperatures, although the rest of the extraction is similar to the others mentioned, using a closed loop, and a hydrocarbon solvent like propane or butane (or carbon dioxide). The plant material is frozen immediately after harvest, and the solvent is also cooled down to cryogenic temperatures before being put over the cannabis. In this process the matter is still being heated at a point to burn off the solvent, but the rest of the process is done at -292 F. The last step for live resin involves vaporizing out CO2 molecules to lower volatility, which leaves the pure live resin at the end. The end result is a yellow concentrate with a consistency somewhere between liquid oils, and more firm waxes.

live rosin - concentrates

One concentrate that does not fit in with the rest, is live rosin. What makes rosin stand out (and it should never be confused with resin – which is a different thing), is that it doesn’t require a solvent, instead using cold and pressure. The term ‘live’ that’s used for both resin and rosin, comes from the idea that both concentrates are made from fresh frozen cannabis, and the processes are done in cold temperatures. This is to preserve as much of the plant material as possible. Some people make rosin in a cheaper way using a hair straightener to smash it together, but the heat in this can ruin plant constituents.

Instead, the real way to make it is to make bubble hash (water hash), which involves an entire process of putting the plant material in successive bags of ice water and using agitation in the cold to remove the plant constituents from the plant. After agitation, there is a layer of golden trichomes that have come off the plant. These are washed off at the end to cleanse away impurities, left to dry on a filter screen, and then scraped off with something like a butter knife. This ice wax is then smashed through a filter in low temperatures, and the result, which is pushed through the filter, is a nearly pure concentrate. Rosin comes out looking smooth and oily, kind of like honey. One gram of good quality rosin can go for over $100.

One name that should be very well known, is BHO, or butane hash oil. This is not a specific type of concentrate, but rather refers to all the concentrates that can be made using butane as a solvent. This term often gets used in place of the more specific concentrate names, but is not specific to anything else, other than the processing solvent. Similarly, when the term ‘CO2 oil’ is used, it refers to concentrates made using carbon dioxide as a solvent. The same concentrates can be made by using either butane or carbon dioxide, so if you want shatter, wax, resin, or whatever else, it doesn’t have to be made with a hydrocarbon.

CO2 extractions

A supercritical CO2 extraction is when carbon dioxide is compressed beyond its ‘critical point’. A critical point is a term used in thermodynamics to describe, in the case of CO2, when its being held at, or above, its critical temperature and pressure point, which allows it to stay somewhere in between a liquid and a gas. At natural temperature and pressure, CO2 is a gas, and when frozen, its dry ice. In its supercritical state it has properties of both a gas and a liquid.

For a CO2 supercritical extraction, the CO2 is compressed to its supercritical liquid form, which is put on cannabis to strip away the cannabinoids and terpenes. The CO2 is then re-pressurized to turn back into a gas, at which point everything it stripped from the plant is left and the CO2 is gone. It’s like if there was stuff stuck in ice, and then the ice melted completed, leaving only what it had been holding onto. This kind of extraction has a couple benefits. The CO2 can be pressurized at temperatures that don’t ruin plant material, and when it reverts back to a gas, it does so without leaving any kind of contamination on the product, making for a cleaner extraction process than using hydrocarbons like butane. It also will not decarboxylate material in the process of extraction.

One of the great uses of a CO2 supercritical extraction is to make an isolate. An isolate is one of the purer forms of concentrate because in the process of making it, all the other plant materials are burned out, which means isolates actually have no smell, color, or flavor. Isolates can be made in several ways, the best of which is with a CO2 supercritical extraction. A less expensive way to make an isolate is with ethanol. Ethanol works well and is safe, but will also pull out more from the plant than just cannabinoids, requiring other techniques to clean out the rest. Yet another way is to use a solvent like pentane. Regardless of how it’s done, the final product is a crystalline powder, which is about the most pure form of CBD or THC possible to get, with no other plant material there.

cannabis isolate

If necessary, after the initial extraction, the extracted material is winterized – or soaked in alcohol and frozen to separate out cannabinoids from other residual plant matter. This is necessary after an ethanol extraction since plant materials are included in the extracted material. The idea of an isolate is that it will be just one cannabinoid in crystalized form. This is separate from a distillate, which is rich in one specific cannabinoid, but which contains other cannabinoids to include the entourage effect.


There are a ton of different cannabis concentrates on the market that include names like shatter, butter, wax, resin and so on. Depending on what’s important to you, and what you’re looking for, there is sure to be a concentrate that meets your needs.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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